The Oxus Civilization was originally discovered by none other than Victor Sarianidi in the 1950s. He came across this ancient site which was later on nicknamed the Bactrian-Margina Archaeological Complex from the Murghab Oasis in Turkmenistan and soon after made it his personal mission to discover the mysterious origins of this site.
Throughout the following years, he came up with the following theories. First off, he declared that the Oxus Civilization could have made its way here from Anatolia through Mesopotamia. They most likely were searching for arable lands to call their own at the time. Since the site is said to be several tens of thousands of years old by now it’s no wonder that the arid lands of today would have been way greener in the past, especially considering the increase in water level.
Second off, he didn’t completely dismiss the idea that the civilization had always lived in this area, although he did declare that if so, the civilization must have been preceded by another ancient civilization that inhabited these lands during the last ice age. Nowadays, you’d have to be pretty desperate to call the deserts from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan home but 20,000 years ago, when the sea levels were approximately 120 meters below our current levels, you’d be surprised just how much life there could be around the site.
The theory entails that the Oxus Civilization made its way here and that it proclaimed these lands as their own because of how inhabitable the were.